Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

About Chicago

There are two versions of the Chicago Reference Style. If you have been advised to use Chicago check with your school to confirm which version you should use.

  • Notes and Bibliography OR
  • Author-Date

Notes and Bibliography is most often used in the humanities (including literature, history and art), while the Author-Date system is often used by the physical, natural, and social sciences.


With this version short citations are given in parenthesis within the text, and a reference list is added at the end of the document.

In-text citation:

(Surname Year, Page)


(Klein 2015, 91)

Reference List entry:

Surname, First Name. Year. Full title. Place: Publisher.


Klein, Julie T. 2015. Interdisciplining Digital Humanities: Boundary Work in an Emerging Field. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Ordering the Bibliography / Reference List:

In the Chicago Style the  Reference List is organised alphabetically by the surnames of the authors.

Please note that the order of elements given in the Bibliography or Reference List is different for the two versions of the Chicago style. Ensure you follow the correct format for the version you are using.  The main variant is where the date of publication appears:

  • Notes and Bibliography: date of publication appears at the end of the reference, after the place and publisher
  • Author-Date: date of publication appears after the details of the authors/editors.

In the Author-Date system sources are cited in the text, in parentheses, and full details appear in the reference list at the end. 


In-text citations:

(Surname Year, Page)

e.g. The question of ethnic origin in the Turkish republic has been largely irrelevant until recent times (Pope and Pope 2011, 19).

Reference List:

Surname, First Name. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

e.g. Pope, Nicole and Hugh Pope. 2011. Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey. New York: The Overlook Press.

Rules are given on how to represent multiple authors, editors etc in the tab Author Rules.

The Chicago Manual of Style is available online