Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include and the format of a journal article reference

Journal article references should include  details of the article and the journal it is published in:

  • Author(s) of the article -  see the author rules tab for details on how to manage multiple authors.
  • Year of publication.
  • Article title. (not italicised)
  • Journal publication title (italicised)
  • Volume number: Part/Issue, (bold)
  • Page range of the article.


  • For multiple authors separate the second and subsequent authors with a comma, with the exception of the penulitmate and final authors who are separated by an ampersand (&).
  • Year is followed by a full-stop/period.
  • The article title is given in full, is not italicised, and is followed by a full-stop/period.
  • Journal publication title follows the article title and is always italicised.
  • Volume number and part/issue number are given in bold, with a colon between the volume and part/issue followed by a comma.
  • The page range of the article is given followed by a full-stop/period.

Where a reference is longer than a single line, the second and subsequent lines should use a hanging indentation.

In-text citation:

(Mithen 1995: 5)

Reference list entry:

MITHEN, S. 1995. Understanding mind and culture: evolutionary psychology or social anthropoplogy? Anthropology Today 11:6, 3-7.


Example of journal cover page Example journal article first page