Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include, and types of books

Book references include: E-book references include:

Example book title page

Knapsack book by Joanna Bourne is licensed by CC BY 2.0

Author(s) Author(s) 
Year Year
Title Title
Editor(s) / Translator(s) Editor(s) / Translator(s)
Edition Statement Edition Statement
Volume Volume
Place Place
Publisher Publisher
  Format / Platform














Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The basic In-text citation format is:

(Surname Year: page)

The Basic Bibliography entry format is:

Surname, First Name. Year. Title of book. (Place of Publication: Publisher)

In-text citation:

(Thomson, Cate and Chapin 2005: 42)

Bibliography entry:

Thomson, Richard, Phillip Dennis Cate, and Mary Weavin Chapin. 2005. Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre, (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Princeton University Press)

With ebooks you provide the same information as you would with a print book, and an indication of the type of file, or service you accessed it from.

In-text citation:

(Shack 2001: 121) 

Bibliography entry:

Shack, William A. 2001. Harlem in Montmartre: a Paris jazz story between the wars, (Berkeley: University of California) University Press Scholarship Online.

In-text citations:

  • Authors Surnames are given
  • For multiple authors follow the advice the Author Rules tab
  • Provide the year of publication, and the page number if referring to a particular page or section.


  • The first author / editor name is given as Surname, First name.
  • Second and subsequent author / editor names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas after each authors name, and the word 'and' before the last author
  • Date follows the author
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • For E-books provide details of the format or platform the ebook was found on.