Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include:

Print journal article references include: Online journal article references include:


Example journal front page

Author(s) of article Author(s) of the article
Year of publication Year of publication
"Title of article" "Title of article"
Title of Journal Title of Journal
Volume number Volume number
Issue number, only when each issue starts with page 1 Issue number, only when each issue starts with page 1
Pages Pages
  doi or URL when no doi is available

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The in-text citation format is:

(Surname Year, Page)

The reference list entry format is:

Surname, First Name. Year. "Article title". Journal title volume number, issue number: incclusive page numbers of article.

NB: Issue number is only given when each issue of a journal starts with new pagination. Where issues use sequential pagination, no issue number is given.

In-text citation:

(Black and Barnes 2015, 423)

Reference list entry:

Black, Jessica, and Jennifer L. Barnes. 2015. "Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on the theory of mind." Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts 9: 423-429. 

Example journal cover page Example journal article first page


In-text citation:

(Kemp et al. 2014, 96)

Reference list entry:

Kemp, Eva, Marika Tiggerman, Jenna Orr, and Justine Grear. 2014. "Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 20: 94-102. doi: 10.1037/xap0000005

Example journal article first page

In-text citation:

(Balfour 2006, 742)

Reference list entry:

Balfour, Gillian. 2006. "Re-imagining a feminist criminology." Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 48: 735-752.

Example journal article first page

In-text citation

  • Includes Author Surname(s) - for multiple authors follow the advice on the Author Rules tab
  • Includes the year of publication
  • Includes a page number when referring to a specific page or section.

Reference List:

  • With journal articles, include the details of the article and the journal in which it is published
  • The first author name is given as Surname, First Name
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Year of publication follows authors
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • The article title is given within "quotation marks"
  • Journal Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Volume number is given, followed by the issue if each issue of the journal starts with new pagination. Where pagination is continuous, no issue number is needed
  • Page numbers for the article are given
  • For online articles provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.