Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include:

Print journal article references include: Online journal article references include:


Example of journal cover page

Author(s) of article Author(s) of the article
Year Year
'Title of article' 'Title of article'
Title of Journal Title of Journal
Volume number Volume number
Pages Pages
  doi or URL when no doi is available
  [accessed date] where using a URL in place of a doi  














Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The basic In-text citation format is:

(Surname Year: page)

The Basic Bibliography entry format is:

Surname, First Name. Year. 'Article title', Journal Title, Volume number: xx-xx

In-text citation:

(Black and Barnes 2015: 425)

Bibliography entry:

Black, Jessica and Jennifer. L. Barnes. 2015. 'Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on the theory of mind', Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 9: 423-429

Example of journal cover page Example of journal article first page


In-text citation:

(Kemp et al. 2014: 97)

Bibliography entry:

Kemp, Eva, Marika Tiggermann, Jenna Orr, and Justine Grear. 2014. 'Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20: 94-102 <doi: 10.1037/xap0000005> 

Example of journal article first page

In-text citation:

(Balfour 2006: 741) 

Bibliography entry:

Balfour, Gillian. 2006. 'Re-imagining a feminist criminology', Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48: 735-752 <> [accessed 19 May 2015]

Example journal article first page


  • Authors Surname only
  • For multiple authors follow the advice the Author Rules tab
  • Provide the Year of Publication
  • Provide the page number you are referring to


  • With journal articles, include the details of the article and the journal it is published in
  • The first author name is given as Surname, First name.
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Year of Publication follows the author(s)
  • The article title is given within 'single quotation marks'.
  • Journal Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Volume number is given
  • Page numbers for the article are given
  • For Online articles provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given
  • For online articles provide the details of the date accessed where a URL is used in place of a doi.