Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter

Book chapter references include: E-book references include:

Example book cover page

Interpreration of Landscapes by Ryan Griffis is licensed by CC BY - SA 2.0

Author(s) of chapter Author(s) of the chapter
Year of publication Year of Publication
Title of chapter Title of chapter
Editor(s) of book Editor(s) of book
Title of book (italicised) Title of book (italicised)
(Chapter page numbers) (Chapter page numbers)
Edition Statement Edition Statement
Place of Publication [Format] - only where the book is also available in print
Publisher Retrieved from
















Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

Where the reference takes up multiple lines, indent the reference from the second line. See the examples in the tabs above.

The basic in-text citation format is:

(Author surname, Year, p. xx)

The basic reference format is:

Author, A.A. (Year). Chapter title. In B.B.Editor (Ed.), Title of book (page numbers)Edition. Publication data.

In-text citation format:

(Shaughnessy, 2015, p. 91)

Reference list entry:

Shaughnessy, N. (2015). Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics.  In G. White (Ed.), Applied  theatre: aesthetics (pp.87-122). London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama.

In-text citation format:

(Lancy, 2016, p. 45)

Reference list entry:

Lancy, D.F.  (2016). Teaching: natural or cultural?. In  D.C. Geary & D.B. Berch (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on child development and education (pp. 33-65).  [PDF]. Retrieved from

Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.

  • In-text citations are within parenthesis, and contain the author(s) surname(s) and year of publication. The page number is given if you are referring to a specific page/section, always give page numbers if you are quoting. If you refer to the authors within your text, only the date is needed in your in-text citation. If you refer to the year in your text, only the author(s) is required in your in-text citation.
  • Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.
  • For multiple authors or editors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas, ampersand, and ellipses.
  • Chapter references include the details of the chapter, and the details of the book the chapter appears in.
  • Chapter titles are not italicised.
  • (Date) is always within parenthesis, and followed with a "."
  • Editor names are give as Initial, Surname, ie reversed order for Authors of a chapter.
  • (Ed.) is given in parenthesis after the Editor's name.
  • Title of the publication is always italicisedand followed by page numbers of the chapter in parenthesis.
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • For print resources a full-stop is given at the end of the reference.
  • For e-books provide details of the format, and either the doi or URL.  No full-stop is used when you enter a DOI or a URL.
  • The second and subsequent lines of each reference should be indented.
  • The reference list should be double line spaced.