Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include:

Print journal article references include: Online journal article references include:


Author(s) of article Author(s) of the article
'Title of article' 'Title of article'
Title of Journal Title of Journal
Volume number Volume number
(Year of publication) (Year of publication)
Pages Pages
  doi or URL when no doi is available
  [accessed date] where using a URL in place of a doi  














Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The Basic Footnote citation (for first citation)

Note number. First Name Surname, 'Article title', Journal title, Volume number (Year), xx-xx (specific page you are referring to p. xx)

The Basic Footnote citation (for subsequent citation of a work)

Note number. Surname, p.xx

The Basic Reference format is:

First Name Surname, 'Article title', Journal Title, Volume number (Year), xx-xx

First footnote citation:

5.Jessica Black and Jennifer L Barnes, 'Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on the theory of mind', Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 9 (2015), 423-429 (p. 425).

Subsequent footnote citation:

8. Black and Barnes, p.427.

Bibliography entry:

Jessica Black and Jennifer L. Barnes, 'Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on the theory of mind', Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 9 (2015), 423-429


First footnote citation:

5.Eva Kemp and others, 'Attention retaining can reduce chocolate consumption', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20 (2014), 94-102 < doi:10.1037/xap0000005> (p. 97)

Subsequent footnote citation:

8. Kemp and others, p.96

Bibliography entry:

Eva Kemp and others, 'Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption', Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20 (2014), 94-102 <doi: 10.1037/xap0000005> 

First footnote citation:

6.Gillian Balfour, 'Re-imagining a feminist criminology', Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48 (2006), 735-752 <> [accessed 19 May 2015] (p. 741)

Subsequent footnote citation:

9. Balfour, p.96

Bibliography entry:

Gillian Balfour, 'Re-imagining a feminist criminology', Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 48 (2006), 735-752 <> [accessed 19 May 2015]


  • Authors are given as First name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice the Author Rules tab
  • First citations provide the full reference, subsequent use of the same source requires a shortened citation


  • With journal articles, include the details of the article and the journal it is published in
  • The first author name is given as First Name Surname.
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • The article title is given within 'single quotation marks'.
  • Journal Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Volume number is given, followed by the issue if each issue of the journal starts with new pagination, where pagination is continuous no issue number is needed
  • Date of publication is given in parenthesis
  • Page numbers for the article are given
  • For Online articles provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given
  • For online articles where no doi is available provide the details of the date accessed in square brackets.