Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How JRAI Style manages authors, editors, translators, and anonymous works.

In-text citation:  (Surname Year: page number)


(Erikson 2001: 78).

Reference List:  SURNAME, Initial(s). Year. Title. Place: Publisher.


ERIKSON, T.H. 2001. Small places, large issues: an introduction to social and cultural anthropology. London: Pluto Press.

In-text citation:  (Surname & Surname Year: page number)


(Keesing & Strathern 1998: 421).

Reference List:  SURNAME, Initial(s) & Initial(s). SURNAME. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.


KEESING, R.M & A.J. STRATHERN  1998. Cultural anthropology: a contemporary perspective. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publisher.

Where you have three or more authors, the in-text citation includes the surname of the first listed author followed by et al., meaning "and others".  The Reference List entry should include the details of all the authors.

In-text citation:  (Surname et al. year: page number).


(Lai, et al. 2013: 184).


Reference List: SURNAME, Inital(s)., Initial(s). SURNAME, Initial(s). SURNAME,.... Initial(s). SURNAME & Initial(s). SURNAME Year. Title. Place: Publisher.


LAI, A.E., F.L. COLLINS & B.S.A. YEOH 2013. Migration and diversity in Asian contexts. Singapore: Institute of South East Asian Studies.

In the full reference all authors are given:

  • For the first author give the SURNAME and Initials followed by a comma
  • For the subsequent authors give the Initials then SURNAME with a comma before the next author
  • an ampersand is used in place of a comma between the penultimate and last of the authors

Follow the author rules for works with multiple editors, with the descriptive label "(ed)" or "(eds)"added in parenthesis in the references list entry only.

In-text citation: (editor(s) Surname Year: page number)


(Vaccaro et al. 2016: 84)

Reference list: SURNAME, Initial.(ed) Year. Title. Place: Publisher.


VACCARO,I., K. HARPER & S. MURRAY (eds) 2016. The anthropology of postindustrialism: ethnographies of disconnection. New York: Routledge.

Where a work is authored by an organisation rather than by named authors, give the name of the organisation in the place of the Author - abbreviations can be used if these are known within your field.

In-text citation:  (Organisation Year: page number)


(UN-Habitat 2016: 142).

Reference List:  ORGANISATION. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.


UN-HABITAT 2016. World cities report 2016: urbanization and development - emerging futures. Nairobi:  United Nations Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat).

Where a work is translated, provide the details of the translation you have read, including the original author/editor and the translator(s)

In-text citation: (Author/Editor  Year: page Number)


(Foucault 1991: 96)

Reference List: SURNAME, Initial(s). Year.  Title (translated by Initial. Surname). Place: Publisher.


FOUCAULT, M. 1991. Discipline and punishment: the birth of the prison (trans. A. Sheridan). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Note the format of the translators name - Initial. Surname.