Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include, and types of books

Book references include: E-book references include:

Knapsack book by Joanna Bourne is licensed by CC BY 2.0

Author(s) Author(s) 
Title Title
Editor(s) / Translator(s) Editor(s) / Translator(s)
Edition Statement Edition Statement
Volume Volume
Place Place
Publisher Publisher
Date Date
  Format / Platform

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

 

The Basic Footnote citation (for first citation)

Note number. First Name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p.xx.

The Basic Footnote citation (for subsequent citation of a work)

Note number. Surname, p.xx.

The Basic Reference format is:

First Name Surname, Title of book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year)

First footnote citation:

2. Richard Thomson, Phillip Dennis Cate and Mary Weavin Chapin, Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre.(Washington DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 42.

Subsequent footnote citation:

3. Thomson, Cate and Weavin, p. 82.

Bibliography entry:

Richard Thomson,  Phillip Dennis Cate, and Mary Weavin Chapin, Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Princeton University Press, 2005)

With ebooks you provide the same information as you would with a print book, and an indication of the type of file, or service you accessed it from.

First footnote citation:

4. William A. Shack  Harlem in Montmartre: a Paris jazz story between the wars (Berkeley: University of California, 2001), p. 121. University Press Scholarship Online.

Subsequent footnote citation:

6. Shack p. 143.

Bibliography entry:

William A.Shack, Harlem in Montmartre: a Paris jazz story between the wars (Berkeley: University of California, 2001), University Press Scholarship Online

Footnote:

  • Authors are given as First name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice the Author Rules tab
  • First citations provide the full reference, subsequent use of the same source requires a shortened citation

Bibliography

  • The first author / editor name is given as First name Surname
  • Second and subsequent author / editor names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas after each authors name, and the word 'and' before the last author
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • Date follows the place and publisher
  • For E-books provide details of the format or platform the ebook was found on.
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