Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

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Referencing Software

You'll find plenty of tools online to help with referencing - but the quality can vary, and you need to be sure your references are correct.*

The Library runs classes on using Mendeley and EndNote - two reliable referencing tools which handle a wide range of referencing styles.  You can find out when these are running, and sign up for a class on PDMS

*It is your responsibility to check that your references are correct.*

Reference styles undergo periodic review and can change.  If you are aware of any changes which aren't reflected in this guide please let the Library know by emailing

Referencing Styles used in the University

There are many different referencing styles available.  This guide includes information about the styles used within the University.  Use the list below to to find the style recommended by your School, use the side options to select the style you need.  You'll find a summary about the key features of a style, how to manage multiple authors, editors, and examples of how to reference different types of resources (books, journal articles, webpages)

The Centre for Educational Enhancement and Development - CEED provides support for students who need help with referencing, in the form of study skills sessions and appointments.

Schools and Styles

  • Art History - Chicago Notes and Bibliography.
  • Biology - Harvard (if using Endnote or Mendeley please select the 'Behavioral Ecology' style).
  • Chemistry - Chemistry projects should use Royal Society of Chemistry referencing style.
  • Classics - Any clear and consistent style such as Harvard or Chicago.  Page numbers should be included in citations.  Ancient texts should be referenced by book, chapter/section and line number as appropriate, rather than the page number in the modern edition or translation.
  • Computer Science - see School of Computer Science Student handbook (link opens in a new window).
  • Divinity - Chicago Notes and Bibliography.
  • Earth and Environmental Science - Harvard (recommended).
  • Economics and Finance - See School of Economics and Finance Student Handbook (link opens in a new window).
  • English - please check with School of English teaching staff.
  • Film Studies - Chicago Notes and Bibliography.
  • Geography and Sustainable Development - Harvard.
  • Graduate School - check with your module co-ordinator for referencing requirements.
  • History - see the School of History Handbook (link opens in a new window).
  • International Education Institute - Masters programmes - APA 7th edition.
  • International Relations - Students should check their module handbook for any specific advice on referencing style, where none is given referencing style is the choice of the student.
  • Management - Harvard.
  • Mathematics and Statistics - Harvard or Chicago Author Date or Vancouver.
  • Medicine - Harvard or Vancouver.  
  • Modern Languages - MHRA footnotes version.
  • Music - various styles can be used, see Music in words for guidance (link opens in a new window).
  • Philosophy - MHRA recommended, can also use MLA, Chicago or Harvard.
  • Physics and Astronomy - Physics should use Vancouver; Astronomy should use Harvard; ID4001 use APA as defined by Taylor and Francis journals (link opens in a new window).
  • Social Anthropology - Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.