Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Reference styles undergo periodic review and can change.  If you are aware of any changes which aren't reflected in this guide please let the Library know by emailing

Referencing Styles used in the University

There are many different referencing styles available.  This guide includes information about the styles used within the University.  Use the list below to to find the style recommended by your School, then select the tab for the style you need.

The Centre for Educational Enhancement and Development - CEED provides support for students who need help with referencing, in the form of study skills sessions and appointments.

Schools and Styles

School Style
Art History Chicago Notes and Bibliography
Biology Harvard
Chemistry Chemistry project reports should use Royal Society of Chemistry format 
Classics Any clear and consistent style such as Harvard or Chicago. Page numbers should be included in citations. Ancient texts should be referenced by book, chapter/section and line number as appropriate, rather than by the page number in the modern edition or translation.​
Computer Science See School of Computer Science Student Handbook (link opens in a new window)
Divinity Chicago (Notes and Bibliography)
Earth and Environmental Science Harvard (recommended)
Economics and Finance See School of Economics and Finance Student Handbook (link opens in a new window)
English Please check with School of English teaching staff
Film Studies Chicago (Notes and Bibliography)
Geography and Sustainable Development Harvard
Graduate School Please check with your module co-ordinator for referencing requirements
History See School of History Handbook (link opens in a new window)
International Education Institute - TESOL Programmes APA - 7th Edition
International Relations Students should check their module handbook for any specific advice on referencing style, where none is given referencing style is the choice of the student.
Management Harvard
Mathematics and Statistics Harvard or Chicago (Author Date) or Vancouver

Harvard or Vancouver

  • For MD5090 use APA (American Psychological Assocation)
Modern Languages MHRA - Footnotes version
Music Various styles can be used - see Music in words for guidance

MHRA (recommended), MLA, Chicago, or Harvard

Physics and Astronomy

Physics - Vancouver

Astrophysics - Harvard

ID4001 - APA as defined by Taylor & Francis journals

Psychology APA (American Psychological Association) 7th edition
Social Anthropology Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute