Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter

Book chapter references include:

  • Author(s) of chapter
  • Year of publication
  • Title of chapter
  • Editor(s) of book
  • Title of book (italicised)
  • (Chapter page numbers)
  • (Edition Statement)
  • Publisher

E-book references include:

  • Author(s) of the chapter
  • Year of Publication
  • Title of chapter
  • Editor(s) of book
  • Title of book (italicised)
  • (Chapter page numbers)
  • (Edition Statement)
  • Publisher
  • DOI or URL


Fields marked in blue are only included where the source contains that information.

Where the reference takes up multiple lines, indent the reference from the second line. See the examples in the tabs above.

The basic in-text citation format is:

(Author surname, Year, p. xx)

The basic reference format is:

Author, A.A. (Year). Chapter title. In B.B.Editor (Ed.), Title of book  (Edition, page numbers). Publication data.

In-text citation format:

(Shaughnessy, 2015, p. 91)

Reference list entry:

Shaughnessy, N. (2015). Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics.  In G. White (Ed.), Applied  theatre: aesthetics (pp.87-122). Bloomsbury Methuen Drama.

DOIs and URLs:

  • If a chapter has a DOI give this;
  • If a chapter  has a DOI and a URL give the DOI;
  • If a chapter has no DOI use the URL only when the URL will resolve for the reader (copy the URL you have)
  • If a chapter has a URL which won't resolve for the reader don't include it, treat the ebook chapter in the same way as a print book chapter.  E.g.This will be the case for ebooks on the EBSCO platform).  Check the links within your word document to see if they resolve.

In-text citation format:

(Lancy, 2016, p. 45)

Reference list entry:

Lancy, D.F.  (2016). Teaching: natural or cultural?. In  D.C. Geary & D.B. Berch (Eds.), Evolutionary perspectives on child development and education (pp. 33-65).  Springer.

Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.

  • In-text citations are within parenthesis, and contain the author(s) surname(s) and year of publication. The page number is given if you are referring to a specific page/section, always give page numbers if you are quoting. If you refer to the authors within your text, only the date is needed in your in-text citation. If you refer to the year in your text, only the author(s) is required in your in-text citation.
  • Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.
  • For multiple authors or editors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas, ampersand, and ellipses.
  • Chapter references include the details of the chapter, and the details of the book the chapter appears in.
  • Chapter titles are not italicised.
  • (Date) is always within parenthesis, and followed with a "."
  • Editor names are give as Initial, Surname, ie reversed order for Authors of a chapter.
  • (Ed.) is given in parenthesis after the Editor's name.
  • Title of the publication is always italicised
  • Where the edition is not the first, place the edition statement in parenthesis following the title.
  • Place the chapter page range within parenthesis (use the same parenthesis as the edition statement if this is included). Place a full stop after the closed parenthesis.
  • The page range if followed by the publisher.
  • For print resources a full-stop is given at the end of the reference.
  • For e-books provide details of the format, and either the doi or URL.  No full-stop is used when you enter a DOI or a URL.
  • The second and subsequent lines of each reference should be indented.
  • The reference list should be double line spaced.