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- Referencing something mentioned in another source (Secondary Referencing)
Referencing a stand alone image
If you want to reference a stand alone image such as a poster or photograph you will need to include:
- Title of the image
- [Format or Medium]
- Publisher: Place
- Physical Description
National AIDS Trust. 5 HIV Facts [poster]. National AIDS Trust: London; 2018. 1 poster: colour, 297 x 420mm.
If an author or creator can't be determined start the reference with the image title. In the case of images without titles you can construct a title based on the image, when constructing a title for an image place this title within square brackets.
Referencing an image contained within a book, article or website
Where you want to reference an image found within a journal article, book chapter, website etc you reference these as part of the source they have come from, referencing the source and then adding the image details as a locator at the end. This will vary depending on what you need to cite and the resource it comes from, some examples are given below:
Image in a journal article
Author(s) of the article. Tile of the article. Journal title. YYYY MMM DD; Volume: page range (or article number). Format of image, Title of image, page number.
e.g. a figure in an online journal article:
Stein F, Sridhar D. Back to the future? Health and the World Bank's human capital index. BMJ [Internet]. 2019 Nov 13 [cited 2022 Dec 7]; 367: I5706. Available from https://www.bmj.com/content/367/bmj.l5706 Figure 1, World Bank's cascade approach.
NB: as this article doesn't have page numbers the figure details are sufficient to reference it.
Image from a webpage
Author or organisation. Title of webpage [Internet]. Place: Publisher: date posted/updated [cited date]. Available from: URL Format of Image, Title of image.
World Health Organization. WHO trains health workers in Ghana on air pollution and health [Internet]. Kusami: World Health Organization; 2022 Sep 14 [cited 2022 Dec 7]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/14-09-2022-who-trains-health-workers-in-ghana-on-air-pollution-and-health Photograph, Interactive session in breakout groups.
Image from a print book
Author. Title of book. Place: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Format of image, title of image, page.
Drake R, Vogl W, Mitchell AW. Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. 1058p. Figure 3.64, Internal view of the right ventricle; p.165.
Image from an online report
Author. Title of report. Place: Publisher. Date of publication [cited date]. Number of pages. Report number (if applicable). Available from: URL Format of image, title,page.
Diabetes UK. The future of diabetes. London: Diabetes UK. 2017 [cited 2022 Dec 7]. 28p. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/get_involved/campaigning/the-future-of-diabetes . Infographic, Diabetes technology explained, p.17.
If the examples above don't match with what you need to reference, and you need help, please email Library@st-andrews.ac.uk with the details of the resource you want to reference.
- Last Updated: May 4, 2023 12:54 PM
- URL: https://libguides.st-andrews.ac.uk/Referencing_styles
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