Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a stand alone image

If you want to reference a stand alone image such as a poster or photograph you will need to include:

  • Author/Artist/Creator
  • Title of the image
  • [Format or Medium]
  • Publisher: Place
  • Date
  • Physical Description


National AIDS Trust. 5 HIV Facts [poster]. National AIDS Trust: London; 2018. 1 poster: colour, 297 x 420mm.

If an author or creator can't be determined start the reference with the image title.  In the case of images without titles you can construct a title based on the image, when constructing a title for an image place this title within square brackets.

Referencing an image contained within a book, article or website

Where you want to reference an image found within a journal article, book chapter, website etc you reference these as part of the source they have come from, referencing the source and then adding the image details as a locator at the end. This will vary depending on what you need to cite and the resource it comes from, some examples are given below:

Image in a journal article

Author(s) of the article. Tile of the article. Journal title. YYYY MMM DD; Volume: page range (or article number). Format of image, Title of image, page number.

e.g. a figure in an online journal article:

Stein F, Sridhar D. Back to the future? Health and the World Bank's human capital index. BMJ [Internet]. 2019 Nov 13 [cited 2022 Dec 7]; 367: I5706. Available from Figure 1, World Bank's cascade approach.

NB: as this article doesn't have page numbers the figure details are sufficient to reference it.

Image from a webpage

Author or organisation. Title of webpage [Internet]. Place: Publisher: date posted/updated [cited date]. Available from: URL Format of Image, Title of image.


World Health Organization. WHO trains health workers in Ghana on air pollution and health [Internet]. Kusami: World Health Organization; 2022 Sep 14 [cited 2022 Dec 7]. Available from: Photograph, Interactive session in breakout groups.

Image from a print book

Author. Title of book. Place: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Format of image, title of image, page.


Drake R, Vogl W, Mitchell AW. Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. 1058p. Figure 3.64, Internal view of the right ventricle; p.165.

Image from an online report

Author. Title of report. Place: Publisher. Date of publication [cited date]. Number of pages. Report number (if applicable). Available from: URL Format of image, title,page.


Diabetes UK. The future of diabetes. London: Diabetes UK. 2017 [cited 2022 Dec 7]. 28p. Available from: . Infographic, Diabetes technology explained, p.17.

Further help

If the examples above don't match with what you need to reference, and you need help, please email with the details of the resource you want to reference.