Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include in a webpage reference

This advice related specifically to web pages, rather than all information found online.  If you need to reference a book or journal article which you have accessed online, please refer to the section within this guide for books and journal articles.

Remember to evaluate the information you find on websites to ensure they are appropriate for academic use.

  • Author or organisation
  • Year of publication/update
  • Title (give the title of the specific page you are referring to)
  • URL (italicised)
  • Date Accessed

The Basic In-Text citation format is:

(Author Surname or Organisation Year)

The Basic Reference format is:

Author or Organisation Year. Title of the specific page (available on-line:  URL, accessed DD Month Year).

In-text citation:

(Global Social Media Impact Study 2016)

Reference list entry:

GLOBAL SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT STUDY 2016. Global Social Media Impact Study: India field site (available

online:, accessed 20 December 2016).


Example of webpage reference