Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter:

Book chapter references include: Ebook references include:

Example book title page

Interpreration of Landscapes by Ryan Griffis is licensed by CC BY - SA 2.0

Author(s) of chapter Author(s) of the chapter
Year Year
"Title of chapter" "Title of chapter"
Title of book (italicised) Title of book (italicised)
Editor(s) of book Editor(s) of book
Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76) Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76)
Place of Publication Place of Publication
Publisher Publisher
DOI (preferred) or URL

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The in-text citation format is:

(Chapter Author Surname Year, Page)

The reference list entry format is:

Chapter Author Surname, First Name. Year. "Title of Chapter". In Title of Book, edited by Editor First Name Surname of Book, inclusive page numbers of chapter. Place: Publisher.

In-text citation:

(Shaughnessy 2005, 89)

Reference list entry:

Shaughnessy, Nicola. 2015. "Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics".  In Applied theatre: aesthetics, edited by Gareth White, 87- 122. London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama.

In-text citation:

(Grieshaber and McArdle 2014, 112)

Reference list entry:

Grieshaber, Susan, and Felicity McArdle. 2014. "Ethical dimension and perspectives on play." In The Sage handbook of play and learning in early childhood, edited by Liz Brooker, Mindy Blaise, and Susan Edwards, 103-114.  Los Angeles: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781473907850.n10

In-text citation

  • Includes chapter Author Surname(s) - for multiple authors follow the advice on the Author Rules tab
  • Includes the year of publication
  • Includes a page number when referring to a specific page or section.

Reference list:

  • With chapters, include the details of the chapter and the book
  • The first author name is given as Surname, First Name
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Year of publication follows the author(s)
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Editor details are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • Page numbers of the full chapter are given
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • For e-books provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.