Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter:

Book chapter references include: Ebook references include:

Example book cover page

Interpreration of Landscapes by Ryan Griffis is licensed by CC BY - SA 2.0

Author(s) of chapter Author(s) of the chapter
"Title of chapter" "Title of chapter"
Title of book (italicised) Title of book (italicised)
Editor(s) of book Editor(s) of book
Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76) Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76)
Place of Publication Place of Publication
Publisher Publisher
Year of publication Year of Publication
DOI (preferred) or URL




Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The footnote or endnote format is:

Note number. Chapter Author's Surname, Short Title, page.

The entry in a bibliography format is:

Chapter Author Surname, First Name, "Title of Chapter". In Title of Book, edited by Editor First Name Surname, inclusive page numbers of chapter. Place: Publisher, Year.

Footnote / endnote entry:

3. Shaughnessy, "Dancing", 96.

Bibliography entry:

Shaughnessy, Nicola.  "Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics." In Applied theatre: aesthetics, edited by Gareth White, 87- 122. London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2015.

Footnote / endnote entry:

4. Barkawi, War, armed forces, 89.

Bibliography entry:

Barkawi, Tarak. "War, armed forces and society in postcolonial perspective." In Postcolonial theory in international relations, edited by Sanjay Seth, 87-105.  Abingdon: Routledge, 2013. 

Footnote / endnote:

  • Include the footnote number
  • Include the chapter author surname(s), applying the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Include a "shortened chapter title" using double inverted commas
  • Include a page number if you are referring to a specific page/section.


  • With chapters, include the details of the chapter and the book
  • The first author of the chapter is given as Surname, First Name
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Chapter titles are given within "quotation marks" but are not italicised
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Editor details are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • Page numbers of the full chapter are given
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • Date follows the place and publisher
  • For e-books provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.