Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter:

Book chapter references include:

  • Author(s) of chapter
  • "Title of chapter"
  • Title of book (italicised)
  • Editor(s) of book
  • Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76)
  • Place of Publication
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication


Ebook references include:

  • Author(s) of the chapter
  • "Title of chapter"
  • Title of book (italicised)
  • Editor(s) of book
  • Page numbers of chapter (e.g. 71-76)
  • Place of Publication
  • Publisher
  • Year of Publication
  • DOI (preferred) or URL


Fields marked in blue are only included where the source contains that information.

The footnote or endnote format is:

Note number. Chapter Author's Surname, Short Title, page.

The entry in a bibliography format is:

Chapter Author Surname, First Name "Title of Chapter". In Title of Book, edited by Editor First Name Surname, inclusive page numbers of chapter. Place: Publisher, Year.

Footnote / endnote entry:

3. Shaughnessy, "Dancing", 96.

Bibliography entry:

Shaughnessy, Nicola  "Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics." In Applied theatre: aesthetics, edited by Gareth White, 87- 122. London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2015.

Footnote / endnote entry:

4. Barkawi, "War, armed forces", 89.

Bibliography entry:

Barkawi, Tarak "War, armed forces and society in postcolonial perspective." In Postcolonial theory in international relations, edited by Sanjay Seth, 87-105.  Abingdon: Routledge, 2013. 

Footnote / endnote:

  • Include the footnote number
  • Include the chapter author surname(s), applying the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Include a "shortened chapter title" using double inverted commas
  • Include a page number if you are referring to a specific page/section.


  • With chapters, include the details of the chapter and the book
  • The first author of the chapter is given as Surname, First Name
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Chapter titles are given within "quotation marks" but are not italicised
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Book title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Editor details are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • Statements such as edited by are not abbreviated
  • Page numbers of the full chapter are given
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • Date follows the place and publisher
  • For e-books provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.