Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

About the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (JRAI) Style

The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (JRAI) style of referencing, is a system of in-text citations and a reference list

In-text citations:

  • (Author Surname Year of Publications) when referring to a whole work   OR
  • (Author Surname Year of Publication: page number) when quoting or referring to a specific page or page range.

Where the Author's name is mentioned within your text, there's no need to include this within the in-text citation.


New technologies are having an impact on the concept of dwelling (Buchli 2006:259).


Buchli argues that new technologues are having an impact on the concept of dwelling (2006: 529).

Reference List:

  • Comes at the end of your document;
  • Lists all the sources you have cited;
  • Is alphabetically arranged by surname of the first author/editor;
  • Contains full details of the sources you have cited 

Reference list entry:
SURNAME, Initial. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Ordering the Reference List:

The  Reference List is organised alphabetically by the surnames of the authors.

Note that in the reference list the author(s) surname is capitalised.


Information about the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute style can be found in the section "Author Guidelines" on the JRAI website.

This includes a short list of examples.  Further examples can be found by viewing the in-text citations and references in any of the articles in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute - which the University has a subscription to.

The information supplied in this guide is based on the Author Guidelines, and references found in the JRAI articles.