Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include, and types of books

Book references include: E-book references include:

Example of book title page

Knapsack book by Joanna Bourne is licensed by CC BY 2.0

Author(s) / Editor(s) Author(s) / Editor(s)
Title (italicised) Title (italicised)
Editor / Translator Editor / Translator
Edition Statement Edition Statement
Volume Volume
Place Place
Publisher Publisher
Date Date

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The footnote or endnote format is:

Note number. Surname, Short Title, page.

The entry in a bibliography format is:

Surname, First Name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Footnote / endnote entry:

2. Esgate, Groome, and Baker, Introduction, 121.

Bibliography entry:

Esgate, Anthony, David Groome, and Kevin Baker. An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Hove: Psychology Press, 2005.

Footnote / endnote entry:

3. Hammerle, Uberegger, and Bader-Zaar, Gender44.

Bibliography entry:

Hammerle, Christa, Oswald Uberegger, and Birgitta Bader-Zaar, eds.  Gender and the First World War. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014. doi: 10.1057/9781137302205

Footnote / endnote:

  • Include the footnote number
  • Include the author surname(s), applying the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Include a shortened title
  • Include a page number if you are referring to a specific page/section.


  • The first author / editor name is given as Surname, First name
  • Second and subsequent author / editor names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas, and the word "and" (not an ampersand)
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • Date follows the place and publisher
  • For e-books provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.