Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

New Edition

This information applies to the 6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  A 7th edition of the manual is now published.  ONLY USE THE INFORMATION HERE IF YOU KNOW YOU NEED TO USE THE 6TH EDITION AND NOT THE 7TH.

How APA manages Authors, Editors and Anonymous works

In-text citation:  (Surname, Year, p.)


(Buss, 2008, p.24)

Reference list:  Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.


Buss, D.M. (2008). Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the mind. 3rd ed. Boston: Pearson /

Allyn and Bacon.


In-text citation:  (Surname, Year, p.)


(Sinnott-Armstrong, 2008, p.89)

Reference list:  Surname, Initial(s). (Ed.). (Year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.


Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (Ed.). (2008). Moral psychology: the evolution of morality - adaptation and innateness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


In-text citation:  (Surname & Surname, Year, p.)


(Eysenck & Keane, 2015, p. 208)

Reference list:  Surname, Initial(s). & Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.


Eysenck, M.W. & Keane, M.T. (Eds.). (2015). Cognitive psychology: a student's handbook. New York: Psychology Press.

Editors - add (Eds.). after the second editors name in the reference list only.

In-text citation:  (Surname, Surname, Surname, Surname, & Surname, Year, p.)

Subsequent in-text citation:  (Surname, et al., Year, p.)


First citation: (Bernstein, Bernstein, Clarke-Stewart, Penner, & Roy, 2008, p. 151)

Subsequent citation: (Bernstein, et al., 2008, p.151)

Reference list:  Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname,

Initial(s)., & Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.


Bernstein, J., Bernstein, D., Clarke-Stewart, A., Penner, L.A. & Roy, E. (2008). Psychology. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Editors - add (Eds.). after the final editors name in the reference list only.

In-text citation:  (Surname, et al., Year, p.)


(Pettijohn, et al., 2015, p. 463)

Reference list entry: (up to seven authors/editors):  Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., & Surname, Initial(s). (Year). Publication Information

Example (journal article):

Van Hoye, G., Lievens, F., De Soete, B., Libbrecht, N., Schollaert, E., & Baligant, D. (2014). The image of psychology programs: The value of the instrumental-symbolic framework. The Journal of  psychology :Interdisciplinary and Applied, 148, 457-475.

Reference list entry: (eight or more authors/editors): First 6 authors/editors, followed by ... Final author. (Year). Publication Information.

Example (journal article):

Pettijohn, F.J., Pettijohn, F., Brenneman, M.M., Glass, J.N., Brito, G.R., Terrinova, A.R., ... Piroch, J. (2015).  College student perception of psychology as a science as a function of psychology course enrollment. College Student Journal, 49, 461-465.

Editors - add (Eds.). after the final editors name in the reference list only.

Where a work is authored by an organisation/group, the full name of the organisation serves as the author.

In-text citation (Organisation not identified through an abbrevation):  (Organisation name, Year, p.)


(International Crisis Group, 2012, p.6)

First in-text citation (organisation readily identified through an abbreviation):  (Organisation name, Year, p.)


(World Health Organization, 2014, p.12)

Subsequent in-text citation (organisation readily identified through an abbreviation): (Abbreviated name, Year, p.)


(WHO, 2014, p.12)

Reference List:  Organisation. (Year). Title. Place: Publisher.


World Health Organization. (2011) Face to face with HIV stigma and discrimination in health care. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Where a work is clearly signed 'Anonymous', give this in place of the Author.

In-text citation: (Anomymous, Year, p.)


(Anomymous, 2012, p. 83)

Reference List: Anonymous (Year). Title. Publication information.


Anomymous (2012). O: A presidential novel. London: Simon & Schuster.

Where no Author / Editor is given, and the work is not signed as 'Anonymous', move the Title to the Author position in the reference list, and alphabetise the entry by the first significant word in the title.

In-text citation: (Words from title, Year, p.)


(Merriam-Webster, 2005, p.428)

Reference List: Title. (edition). (Year). Publication Information.


Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2005). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.