Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How Chicago Styles manage Authors, Editors and Anonymous works

Author-Date

In-text citation:  (Surname Year, Page)

Example: 

(Small 2009, 56)

Reference List:  Surname, First Name. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Small, Graeme. 2009. Late Medieval France. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author-Date

In-text citation:  (Surname Year, Page)

Example: 

(Salisbury 1967, 176)

Reference List:  Surname, First Name, ed. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Salisbury, Harrison E., ed. 1967. Anatomy of the Soviet Union. London: Nelson.

Note that "ed." is not added to the in-text citation, but is added to the reference in the reference list.

Author-Date

In-text citation:  (Surname and Surname Year, Page)

Example: 

(Pope and Pope 2011, 19)

Reference List:  Surname, First Name, and First Name Surname. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Pope, Nicole, and Hugh Pope. 2011. Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey. New York: The Overlook Press.

  • Always use "and" rather than "&" between the first and second Author/Editor.
  • Note that in the reference entry the first Author/Editor is given as Surname, First name, and the second Author/Editor is given as First Name Surname.
  • Editors: Note that "eds." is not added to the in-text citation, but is added to the reference in the reference list.

Author-Date

In-text citation:  (Surname, Surname, and Surname Year, Page)

Example: 

(Dees, Emerson, and Economy 2001, 170)

Reference List:  Surname, First Name, First Name Surname, and First Name Surname. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Dees, J. Gregory, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy. 2001. Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York: Wiley.

  • Use a comma "," between the Authors/Editors.
  • Always use "and" rather than "&" between the second and third Author/Editor.
  • Note that in the reference entry the first Author/Editor is given as Surname, First Name, and the subsequent Authors/Editors are given as First Name Surname.
  • Editors: Note that "eds." is not added to the in-text citation, but is added to the reference in the reference list.

Author-Date

For a book with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry. For the in-text citation, give only the surname of the first author, followed by et al. .

In-text citation:  (Surname et al. Year, Page)

Example: 

(Davis et al. 2015, 121)

Reference List:  Surname, First Name, First Name Surname, First Name Surname, and First Name Surname. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Davis, Glyn,  Kay Dickinson, Lisa Patti, and Amy Villarego. 2015. Film Studies: A Global Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Use a comma "," between the Authors/Editors.
  • Always use "and" rather than "&" before the final Author/Editor.
  • Note that in the reference entry the First Author/Editor is given as Surname, First Name, and the subsequent Authors/Editors are given as First Name Surname.
  • Editors: Note that "eds." is not added to the in-text citation, but is added to the reference in the reference list.

Author-Date

Where a resource is published by an organisation, and where no individual is identified as the author/editor, use the organisation full name in place of an author/editor.  

In-text citation:  (Organisation Name Year, Page)

Example: 

(World Health Organization 1992, 218)

Reference List: Organisation Name. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

World Health Organization. 1992. The IDC-10 Classication of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines . Geneva: World Health Organization.

Author-Date:

If the author or editor is unknown, the in-text citation includes a shortened, italicised Title in place of the Author, which must include the first significant word of the title. The entry in the reference list should begin with the title.  Entries in the Reference List are alphabetised from the first significant word (excluding words like "A", "The", "An", etc.).

Where an author or editor if known or guessed at, but the details are not included on the title page of the resource, the name is included in square brackets in both the in-text citation and Reference List.

Where Author / Editor is unknown:

In-text citation: (Short title Year, page).

Example:

(Primary Colors 2006, 67)

Reference List: Full title. Year. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. 2006. New York: Random House.

Where Author / Editor is known or guessed at

In-text citation: ([Surname] Year, Page)

Example:

([Adams] 1880, 15)

Reference List: [Surname, First Name]. Year. Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

[Adams, Henry]. 1880. Democracy: An American Novel. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Where a work has an original author or editor and has been translated, you need to include the details of the Author/Editor and the Translator.  You include details of the Translator in the Reference List only.

In-text citation: (Author Year, Page)

Example:

(Zhmud 2012, 118)

Reference List: Surname, First Name. Year. Title. Translated by First Name Surname. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Zhmud, Leonid. 2012. Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Kevin Winder, and Rosh Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Note that the Translator(s) name is given as First Name Surname.

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