Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter:

Book chapter references include: Ebook references include:

Example book title page

Interpreration of Landscapes by Ryan Griffis is licensed by CC BY - SA 2.0

Author(s) of chapter Author(s) of the chapter
'Title of chapter' 'Title of chapter'
Title of book (italicised) Title of book (italicised)
Editor(s) of book Editor(s) of book
Place of Publication Place of Publication
Publisher Publisher
Year of publication Year of Publication
Page numbers of chapter (e.g. pp. 71-76) Page numbers of chapter (e.g. pp. 71-76)

Format or Platform













General Format of Footnotes(first citation):

Footnote number. First name Surname, 'Chapter title', in Title ed by Name of editor(s) (Place: Publisher, Year), pp.xx - xx(page range of chapter) (p.xx).

General Format of Footnotes (subsequent citation of a work)

Footnote number. Surname, pp.xx.

General Format for Bibliography:

Author First Name Surname, 'Title of Chapter', in Title of Book, edited by Editor First name Surname of Book, (Place: Publisher, Year), pp. xx-xx

First footnote citation:

1. Nicola Shaughnessy, 'Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics', in Applied theatre: aesthetics, ed. by Gareth White (London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2015), pp.87-122 (p. 89).

Subsequent footnote citation:

3. Shaughnessy, p. 97.

Bibliography entry:

Nicola Shaughnessy, 'Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics' in  Applied theatre: aesthetics, ed. by Gareth White, (London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2015), pp. 87-122 

First footnote citation:

2. Susan Grieshaber and Felicity McArdle, 'Ethical dimension and perspective on play' in The Sage handbook of play and learning in early childhood, ed. by Liz Brooker, Mindy Blaise, and Susan Edwards, (Los Angeles: Sage, 2014), pp.103-114 (p. 109), Sage Knowledge.

Subsequent footnote citation:

4. Grieshaber and McArdle, p. 111.

Bibliography entry:

Susan Grieshaber and Felicity McArdle, 'Ethical dimension and perspectives on play' in The Sage handbook of play and learning in early childhood, ed. by Liz Brooker, Mindy Blaise, and Susan Edwards, (Los Angeles: Sage, 2014) pp.103-114, Sage Knowledge 


  • Authors are given as First name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice the Author Rules tab
  • First citations provide the full reference, subsequent use of the same source requires a shortened citation


  • The first author / editor name is given as First name Surname.
  • Second and subsequent author / editor names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas after each authors name, and the word 'and' before the last author
  • Chapter title is given within 'single quotation marks', and is not italicised
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • Date follows the place and publisher
  • Page numbers are given for the chapter
  • For E-books provide details of the format or platform the ebook was found on.