Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include:

Print journal article references include: Online journal article references include:
Author(s) of article Author(s) of the article
"Title of article" "Title of article"
Title of Journal (italicised) Title of Journal (italicised)
Volume number Volume number
Issue number, only when each issue starts with page 1 Issue number, only when each issue starts with page 1
(Year of publication) (Year of publication)
Pages Pages
  doi or URL when no doi is available













Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The footnote or endnote format is:

Note number. Author's surname, Short Title, page.

The entry in a bibliography format is:

Surname, First Name. "Article title". Journal title volume number, issue number (year): pp-pp.

NB: Issue number is only given when each issue of a journal starts with new pagination. Where issues use sequential pagination, no issue number is given.

Footnote / endnote entry:

5. Black and Barnes, Fiction and social cognition, 423.

Bibliography entry:

Black, Jessica, and Jennifer L. Barnes.  "Fiction and social cognition: The effect of viewing award-winning television dramas on the theory of mind." Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts 9 (2015): 423-429. 

Example of journal cover page Example journal article first page


Footnote / endnote entry:

6. Kemp et al., Attention retraining, 98.

Bibliography entry:

Kemp, Eva, Marika Tiggerman, Jenna Orr, and Justine Grear. "Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption." Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 20 (2014): 94-102. doi: 10.1037/xap0000005

Example of journal article first page

Footnote / endnote entry:

6. Balfour, Re-imagining, 745.

Bibliography entry:

Balfour, Gillian. "Re-imagining a feminist criminology." Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 48 (2006): 735-752.

Example of journal article first page

Footnote / endnote:

  • Include the footnote number
  • Include the author surname(s), applying the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • Include a shortened title for the article
  • Include a page number if you are referring to a specific page/section.


  • With journal articles, include the details of the article and the journal in which it is published
  • The first author name is given as Surname, First name
  • Second and subsequent author names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab
  • The article title is given in "quotation marks" but is not italicised
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Journal Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Volume number is given, followed by the issue if each issue of the journal starts with new pagination. Where pagination is continuous no issue number is needed.
  • Date of publication is given in parenthesis
  • Page numbers for the article are given
  • For online articles provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.