Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How MLA manages authors, editors, and anonymous works

In-text-citation:  (Surname page number)

Example:

(Buss 24).

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Author.
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Example:

Buss, David M. Evolutionary Psychology: the New Science of the Mind. 3rd ed., Pearson/ Allen and Bacon, 2008, Boston.

 

In-text-citation:  (Surname and Surname page number)

Example:

(Eysenck and Keane 208).

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Authors - first author is given Surname, First Names, the word and is used, second author is given First Names Surname.
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Example:

Eysenck, Michael W. and Mark T. Keane. Cognitive Psychology: a Student Handbook. 7th ed., Psychology Press, 2015, New York.

 

 

In-text-citation:  (Surname et al. page number)

Example:

(Harlacher 121)

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Authors - first author is given Surname, First Names, the abbreviation et al. is used for all other authors
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Example:

Harlacher, Jason E., et al. Practitioner's Guide to Curriculum-Based Evaluation in Reading. Springer, 2014, New York.

 

Follow the author rules for works with multiple editors, with the descriptive label "editor" added in the cited references list entry only.

In-text citation: (editor(s) Surname page number)

Examples:

(Desai 82)

(Chansky and Hipchen 215)

(Kerby-Fulton, et al. 48)

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Editor - first Editor is given Surname, First Names, with editor. added to the end of the name, or editors for works with multiple editors - works with multiple editors follow the multiple author rules. 
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Examples:

Desai, Ashwin, editor. Reading Revolution: Shakespeare on Robbin Island.  Haymarket Books, 2014, Chicago.

Chansky, Ricia Anne, and Emily Hipchen, editors. The Routledge Autobiography Studies Reader.  Routledge, 2016, Abingdon.

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn, et al., editors. New Directions in Medieval Manuscript Studies and Reading Practices: Essays in Honour of Derek Pearsall. University of Notre-Dame Press, 2014, Notre-Dame, Indiana.

 

When the source you have used is a translation, treat the translator as the author, include the descriptive label "translator" in the cited works list reference only.

In-text-citation:  (Surname page number)

Example:

(Rabassa 76).

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Translator surname, first names followed by the descriptive label translator
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors, (ie the author of the original work, preceeded by the word "By")
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Example:

Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel García Márquez, Penguin, 2007, London.

 

Where the work has been written by an organisation, institution, government agency, they take the role of author.  If they are also the publisher of the work, then the entry in the Cited Works list begins with the Title of the work, with no author listed, and the organisation given as the publisher, see the two examples below.

In-text-citation:  (Surname page number) OR (Title page number)

Example:

(Department of Education and Science 3)

(The Blue Helmets 320)

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Organisation. (only when the publisher is a different company)
  2. Title of Source.
  3. Title of Container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Versions,
  6. Number,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date, 
  9. Location.

Example:

Department of Education and Science. Modern Languages in the School Curriculum. H.M.S.O, 1988, London.

The Blue Helmets: a Review of United Nations Peace-Keeping. United Nations, 1990, New York.

 

 

When no author is listed, the first component of your reference will be the title - do not use anomymous in place of the author.

In-text-citation:  (Title page number)

Example:

(How St. Andrew came to Scotland 12).

Works cited reference - includes core elements:

  1. Title of Source.
  2. Title of Container,
  3. Other contributors,
  4. Versions,
  5. Number,
  6. Publisher,
  7. Publication date, 
  8. Location.

Example:

How St. Andrew Came to Scotland. Turnbull and Spears, 1917, Edinburgh.

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