Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How Harvard manages Authors, Editors and Anonymous works

In-text citation:  (Surname, Year, p.).

Example: 

(Buss, 2008, p.24).

Reference List:  Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Buss, D.M. (2008) Evolutionary psychology: the new science of the mind. 3rd edn. Boston: Pearson / Allyn and Bacon.

In-text citation:  (Surname, Year, p.).

Example:

(Sinnott-Armstrong, 2008, p.89)

Reference List:  Surname, Initial(s). (ed.) (Year). Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (ed.) (2008). Moral psychology: the evolution of morality - adaptation and innateness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

In-text citation:  (Surname and Surname, Year, p.).

Example: 

(Eysenck and Keane, 2015, p. 208).

Reference List:  Surname, Initial(s). & Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Eysenck, M. W. and Keane, M. T. (2015) Cognitive psychology: a student's handbook. New York: Psychology Press.

Editors - add (eds.) after the second editors name in the reference list only.

 

Note the use of the word and between authors, not &.

In-text citation:  (Surname, Surname and Surname, Year, p.).

Example: 

 (Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2014, p. 151).

Reference List:  Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s). and Surname. Initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Kump, L.R., Kasting,J.F. and Crane, R.G. (2014) The Earth systemHarlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Editors - add (Eds.) after the final editors name in the reference list only.

Note the use of the world and between the second and third authors/editors, not &.

Where you have four or more authors/editors, the in-text citation includes the surname of the first listed author followed by et al., meaning "and others".  The Reference List entry should include the details of all the authors.

In-text citation:  (Surname, et al., Year, p.).

Example: 

(Svergun, et al., 2013, p. 215).

Reference List:  Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s)., Surname, Initial(s). and Surname. Initial(s). (Year) Publication Information

Example:

Svergun, D.I., Koch, M.H.J., Timmins, P.A. and May, R.P. (2013) Small angle x-ray and neutron scattering from solutions of biological macromolecules. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Editors - add (Eds.) after the final editors name in the reference list only.

Where a work is authored by an organisation/group, the full name of the organisation serves as the author.

In-text citation:  (Organisation name, Year, p.)

Example:

(World Health Organization, 2014, p.12)

Reference List:  Organisation (Year) Title. Place: Publisher.

Example:

World Health Organization (2011) Face to face with HIV stigma and discrimination in health care. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Where a work has no given Author or Editor, the in-text citation uses the Title in italics

In-text citation: (Title, Year, p.)

Example:

(O: A presidential novel, 2012, p. 83)

Reference List: Title (year) Publication information.

Example:

O: A presidential novel (2012) London: Simon & Schuster.

Don't use "anon" or "anonymous" in place of an author/editor.

Where a work is translated, provide the details of the translation you have read, including the original author/editor and the translator(s)

In-text citation: (Author/Editor, Year, p.)

Example:

(Garcia-Marquez, 1978, p. 96)

Reference List: Surname, Initial(s). (Year) Title. Translated by Initial. Surname. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Example:

Garcia-Marquez, G. (1978) One hundred years of solitude. Translated by G. Rabbasa. London: Pan.

Note the format of the translators name - Initial. Surname.

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