Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How Chicago Styles manage Authors, Editors and Anonymous works

Notes and Bibliography:

Shortened footnote or endnote citation:

Note Number. Surname, Short Title, Page.

Example:

4. Small, Late Medieval France, 56.

Entry in a bibliography:

Surname, First Name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Small, Graeme. Late Medieval France. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Notes and Bibliography:

Shortened footnote or endnote citation:

Note Number. Surname, Short Title, Page.

Example:

18. Salisbury, Anatomy, 176.

Entry in a bibliography:

Surname, First Name, ed. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Salisbury, Harrison E., ed. Anatomy of the Soviet Union. London: Nelson, 1967.

The addition of the "ed." is only given in the bibliography, not in the footnote.

Notes and Bibliography:

Shortened footnote or endnote citation:

Note Number. Surname and Surname, Short Title, Page.

Example:

1. Pope and Pope, Turkey Unveiled, 19.

Entry in a bibliography:

Surname, First Name, and First Name Surname. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Pope, Nicole, and Hugh Pope. Turkey Unveiled: A History of Modern Turkey. New York: The Overlook Press, 2011.

Name order - note that the format for the second author's name is First Name Surname.

Editors - add "eds." after the second editor's name in the bibliography only.

Notes and Bibliography:

Shortened footnote or endnote citation:

Note Number. Surname, Surname, and Surname, Short Title, Page.

Example:

11. Dees, Emerson, and Economy, Enterprising Nonprofits, 170.

Entry in a bibliography:

Surname, First Name, First Name Surname, and First Name Surname. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Dees, J. Gregory, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy. Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Name order - note that the format for the second and subsequent author's name is First Name Surname.

Editors - add "eds." after the third editor's name in the bibliography entry only.

Notes and Bibliography:

For resources with four or more authors, list all the authors in the bibliography entry. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. In the note cite only the name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

Shortened footnote or endnote citation:

Note Number. First Surname et al., Short Title, Page.

Example:

18. Davis et al., Film Studies, 44.

Entry in a bibliography:

Surname, First Name, First Name Surname, First Name Surname, and First Name Surname. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Davis, Glyn, Kay Dickinson, Lisa Patti, and Amy Villarejo. Film Studies: A Global Introduction. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015.

Name order - note that the format for the second and subsequent author's name is First Name Surname.

Editors - add "eds." after the final editor's name in the bibliography entry only.

Notes and Bibliography:

If a publication is issued by an organisation, association, or corporation  and carries no personal author’s name on the title page, the organisation is listed as author in a bibliography, even if it is also given as publisher.

Shortened footnote/endnote citation:

Note number. Organisation full name, Short Title, page.

Example:

3. World Health Organization, IDC-10, 143.

Entry in bibliography:

Organisation full name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

World Health Organization. The IDC-10 Classication of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.

Notes and Bibliography:

If the author or editor is unknown, the footnote or endnote and biography should begin with the title.  Entries in the bibliography are alphabetised from the first significant word (excluding words like "A", "The", "An", etc.).

Where an author or editor is known or guessed at, but the details are not included on the title page of the resource, the name is included in square brackets in both the footnote or endnote and the bibliography.

Where author / editor is unknown:

Shortened footnote or endnote:

Note Number. Shortened title, page.

Example:

6. Primary Colors, 67.

Entry in bibliography:

Full title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics. New York: Random House, 2006.

Where author / editor is known or guessed at:

Stortened footnote or endnote:

Note number. [First Name Surname] Short title, page.

Example:

8. [Henry Adams], Democracy, 15.

Entry in bibliography:

[Surname, First Name]. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

[Adams, Henry]. Democracy: An American Novel. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1880.

Where a work has an original author or editor and has been translated, you need to include the details of the author/editor and the translator.  You only include details of the translator in the bibliography.

Shortened footnote or endnote:

Note Number. Author Surname, Short Title, Page.

Example:

12. Zhmud, Pythagoras , 118.

Entry in a bibliography:

Author Surname, First Name. Title. Translated by First Name Surname. Place: Publisher, Year.

Example:

Zhmud, Leonid. Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. Translated by Kevin Winder and Rosh Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Name order - note that the format for the translator's name is First Name Surname.

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