Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Secondary Referencing

In your reading you may come across the ideas of someone referred to or quoted within the source you are using, and if you want to cite this, its knows as a secondary reference.  You aren't citing the person directly, you are citing someone else's reporting of what they have said.

You need to make it clear if you want to cite this information, that you read it somewhere else, giving credit to the person's ideas, and the source you found the information in.

Remember that your reference list or bibliography should only contain details of sources you have read.

Scenario:

Emma Gordon quotes the Philosopher of Science, Alexander Rosenberg, in her chapter of a book, edited by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard.  I want to include the quotation which Emma Gordon has cited in her chapter, within my essay.

My Source

  • Author- Emma Gordon
  • Chapter: Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people 
  • Book: Philosphy, Science and Religion for Everyone.  Edited bt Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard

Emma Gordon's quoted Source

  • Author: Alexander Rosenberg
  • Book: The Atheist's Guide to Reality

If you can, it's best to track down the quoted source if you want to cite it.  This way you can avoid secondary referencing.  You can also verify that the information is correct, that the person quoted or referred to did say what has been claimed.  If you can't find or get access to the original source then follow the advice in the tabs above for your referencing style.

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

In text citation:

Rosenberg states that "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality" (as cited in Gordon, 2018)

Reference List entry:

Gordon, E. (2018). Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people. In M.Harris & D. Pritchard (Eds.), Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone (pp. 93-104). Abingdon: Routledge

The Chicago Manual of Style advises that secondary referencing should only be used where the original source cannot be found.

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

Notes & Bibliography Footnote citation:

"being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive reality"1.

Footnote:

1. Alexander Rosenberg, "The Atheist's Guide to Reality", quoted in  Emma Gordon, "Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people?". In Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, ed. Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard (Abingdon: Routledge. 2018), 95.

Bibliography:

Gordon, Emma, "Is fundamentalism just a problems for religious people?" In Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, edited by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard, 93-104. Abindgon: Routledge, 2018.

Author-Date in text citation and reference list entry:

In-text citation

"being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive reality" (Rosenberg in Gordon, 2018, p. 95)

Reference List entry:

Gordon, Emma. 2018. "Is fundamentalism just a problems for religious people?" In Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, edited by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard, 93-104. AbindgonRoutledge.

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

In text citation:

Rosenberg states that "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality" (2012, quoted in Gordon, 2018, p.95)

Reference List entry:

Gordon, E. (2018). 'Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people', in Harris M. and  Pritchard D. (eds.), Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 93-104.

The MHRA style guide gives no advice on how to cite secondary sources, you are strongly advised to find the original source.  Where you can't you would include the details of the original source within your text

Emma Gordon quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

Footnote version of MHRA:

Gordon cites Alexander Rosenberg as saying"being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive reality"1.

First Footnote citation:

1. Emma Gordon, 'Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people?', in Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, ed. by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard (Abingdon: Routledge. 2018),pp. 93-104 (p. 95).

Subsequent shortened footnote citation:

4. Gordon, p. 97.

Bibliography:

Emma Gordon, 'Is fundamentalism just a problems for religious people?', in Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, edited by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard, (AbindgonRoutledge, 2018), pp. 93-104. 

Author-Date in text citation and reference list entry:

In-text citation

Rosenberg is quoted as saying "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive reality" (Gordon 2018: 95)

Reference List entry:

Gordon, Emma. 2018. 'Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people?', in Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, ed. by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard (Abingdon: Routledge), pp. 93-104.

The MLA Handbook does not mention secondary referencing, you are strongly advised therefore to find original source to cite.  Where you can't find the original source you should make it clear within your text that you are not citing the original source

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

In text citation:

Alexander Rosenberg is quoted as saying "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality" (E. Gordon 95).

List of works cited:

Gordon, Emma. "Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people?" Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, edited by Mark Harris and Duncan Pritchard, Routledge, 2018, pp. 93-104.

The Royal Society of Chemistry style does not specify how you should cite someone's work cited in another source, you are strongly advised to try to find the original source to cite.  If you can't find the original source you should make it clear within your text that you are not using the original source.

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

Within your text:

Alexander Rosenberg is quoted as stating that "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality" 1

References:

1.  E. Gordon, in Philosophy, Science and Religion for Everyone, ed. M. Harris and D. Pritchard, Routledge, Abingdon, 2018, ch, 9, pp, 93-04.

The Royal Society of Chemistry style does not specify how you should cite someone's work cited in another source, you are strongly advised to try to find the original source to cite.  If you can't find the original source you should make it clear within your text that you are not using the original source.

Emma Gordon's chapter quotes Alexander Rosenberg, who says "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality".  To cite Rosenberg without finding the original source:

Within your text:

Alexander Rosenberg is quoted as stating that "being scientific just means treating science as our exclusive guide to reality" 1

References:

Gordon, E. Is fundamentalism just a problem for religious people? in Harris M, Pritchard D editors. Philosophy, science and religion for everyone. Abingdon: Routledge; 2018. p. 93-104.

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