Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

How MHRA footnote style manage Authors, Editors and Anonymous works

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. Author Firstname Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

4. André Gallois, The metaphysics of identity (New York: Routledge, 2016), p.28.

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Surname, p. xx.

Example:

8. Gallois, p. 84.

Entry in a bibliography:

First Name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year)

Example:

 Andre GalloisThe metaphysics of identity (New York: Routledge, 2016)

Note that in the bibliography the author name is given as first name then surname.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. Author Firstname Surname and Author Firstname Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

4. John A. Alford and Dennis P. Seniff, Literature and law in the Middle Ages: a bibliography of scholarship (New York: Garland, 1984), p.42.

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Surname and Surname, p. xx.

Example:

8. Alford and Seniff, p. 102.

Entry in a bibliography:

First Name Surname, and Firstname Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year)

Example:

 John A. Alford and Dennis P. Seniff, Literature and law in the Middle Ages: a bibliography of scholarship (New York: Garland, 1984)

Note that in the bibliography the authors are given as first name surname.  The word "and" is used between the first and second author.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. Author First name Surname, Author First name Surname and Author First name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

4. Richard Thomson, Phillip Dennis Cate and Mary Weavin Chaplin, Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Princeton University Press, 2005), p.151

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Surname, Surname and Surname, p. xx.

Example:

8. Thomson, Cate and Chaplin, p. 102.

Entry in a bibliography:

Firstname Surname, First name Surname, and First name Surname, Title (Place: Publisher, Year)

Example:

 Richard Thomson,  Phillip Dennis Cate, and Mary Weaven Chaplin, Toulouse-Lautrec and Montmartre (Washington DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Princeton University Press, 2005)

Note that in the bibliography the authors are given as first name surname.  A comma is used between the first and second author, and the word "and" is used between the second and third author.

Where you have more than three authors, you list the First Author followed by "and others" in footnotes and bibliography.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. First Author First name Surname and others, Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

4. Glyn Davis and others, Film studies: a global introduction (Abingdon: Routledge, 2015), p.95.

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Surname and others, p. xx.

Example:

8. Davis and others, p. 84.

Entry in a bibliography:

First Name Surname, and others. Title (Place: Publisher, Year)

Example:

Glyn Davis and others, Film studies: a global introduction (New York: Routledge, 2015)

Note that in the bibliography the author name is given as first name surname, followed with the phrase and others.

Where the work is an edited collection or anthology, the title of the work appears first, followed by the editor, in the footnote.  For the bibliography, the Editor is listed before the title.  Where a work has multiple editors, follow the same rules as for multiple authors but use the abbreviation eds in the bibliography.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. Title, ed. by First name Surname (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

4. The social sciences and democracy, ed. by Jerone Van Bouwel (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), p.201.

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Shortened title, p. xx.

Example:

8. Social sciences and democracy, p. 122.

Entry in a bibliography:

First name Surname, ed., Title, (Place, Publisher, Year)

Example:

 Jerone Van Bouwel, ed.,The social sciences and democracy,  (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Note that in the bibliography the editor's name is given as first name surname, followed by ed.

Where a work has an original author or editor and has been translated, you need to include the details of the Author/Editor and the Translator in the footnote and the bibliography.  

Footnotes and Bibliography:

Footnote:

Note Number. First Name Surname of Author,Title, trans. by First name Surname (Place: Publisher, Year), p. xx.

Example:

3. Gabriel García Márquez, One hundred years of solitude, trans. by Gregory Rabassa (London: Penguin, 2007), p.143.

Subsequent citation in footnote:

Note Number, Author Surname, p. xx.

Example:

8. García Márquez, p. 122.

Entry in a bibliography:

First name Surname, Title, trans. by First name Surname of translator (Place, Publisher, Year)

Example:

Gabriel García Márquez, One hundred years of solitude, trans. by Gregory Rabassa (London: Penguin, 2007)

Notes and Bibliography:

If the author or editor is unknown, use [Anon.] in place of the author or editor in the footnote

Where Author / Editor is unknown:

Footnote 

Note Number. [Anon.], Title (Place: Publisher, Year), p.xx

Example:

6. [Anon.],Primary Colors: A novel of politics (New York: Random House, 2006), p.67.

Entry in Bibliography:

Anonymous works are listed alphabetically by the first significant word of their title.

Full title. (Place: Publisher, Year)

Example:

Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics (New York: Random House, 2006)

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