Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include and the format of a chapter reference

Chapter references should include  details of the chapter and the book it is published in:

  • Author(s) or Editor(s) of the chapter -  see the author rules tab for details on how to manage multiple authors, etc.
  • Year of publication.
  • Chapter title. (not italicised)
  • In Title of the book (italicised)
  • (ed) or (eds) Initial(s). Surname,
  • Page range of the chapter.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.

You may also include the following if required:

  • Details of translators (given after the title in parenthesis with the abbreviation "trans." preceeding the translators name.  Translators names are given as Initial(s). Surname.
  • Original publication date - where the version you have used is reprint/republication of an edition - where this is the case the date publication for the edition you are using appears, with the original date following in square brackets.

Punctuation: 

(NB: the fields below in red are optional fields)

  • For multiple authors separate the second and subsequent authors with a comma, with the exception of the penulitmate and final authors who are separated by an ampersand (&).
  • Year is followed by a full-stop/period
  • Where you need to add an original publication date, add it after the publication date of the source you used, in square brackets before the full-stop/period.
  • The chapter title is given in full, is not italicised, and is followed by a full-stop/period.
  • Title of the book follows the chapter title and is always italicised and is  followed (ed) or (eds) Initial(s). Surname and followed by a full-stop/period.
  • If the work has a translator add "trans. Initial(s). Surname" in parenthesis after the editor(s) and before the full-stop/period.
  • Place is followed with a colon;
  • Publisher is followed by a full-stop/period.

Where a reference is longer than a single line, the second and subsequent lines should use a hanging indentation.

In-text citation:

(Hildegard & Hugh-Jones  2014: 82)

Reference list entry:

HILDEGARD, D. & S. HUGH-JONES 2014. Sacred books in a digital age. In Subversion, conversion, development: cross-cultural knowledge exchange and the politics of design (eds) J. Leach & L. Wilson, 79-104. Cambridge: MIT Press.

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