Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include:

This advice related specifically to web pages, rather than all information found online.  If you need to reference a book or journal article which you have accessed online, please refer to the section within this guide for books and journal articles.

Remember to evaluate the information you find on websites to ensure they are appropriate for academic use.

  • Author or organisation
  • Title (give the title of the specific page you are referring to)
  • Give the title of the website
  • Place: Publisher;
  • Date produced YYYY MMM DD
  • [Date updated YYYY MMM DD; Cited YYYY MMM DD].
  • Available from :URL

The Basic Reference format is:

Author or Organisation. Title [Internet]. Place: Publisher; YYYY MMM DD [cited YYYY MMM DD]. Available from: URL 

 

In-text citation:

Use either a bracketed number or superscripted number which refers to an entry in the Reference List.  If you refer to the same source again, use the same bracketed or superscripted number.

Reference list entry:

9. Jones C. Solar system facts [Internet]. Space Facts; 2017 [cited 2017 Feb 13]. Available from: http://space-facts.com/solar-system/

  • For author information look in the "About" section of a web page
  • Dates can often be found either beside the title, if it's a blog entry, etc. or at the bottom of the website.
  • Omit any information you can't find.

 

 

 

 

In-text citation:

Use either a bracketed number or superscripted number which refers to an entry in the Reference List.  If you refer to the same source again, use the same bracketed or superscripted number.

Reference list entry:

10. NASA. Journey to Mars [Internet]. Washington: NASA: 2016 Sep 30 [cited 2017 Feb 13]. Available from: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/journeytomars/index.html 

  • Where an organisation is commonly known by an acronym (NASA, UN, etc) there's no need to give the full name.  Where an acronym isn't in common use, or you want to avoid any uncertainly the full name of the organisation should be given.
  • Date of publication can often be found alongside the page title or at the bottom of the page.

  • In-text citations are bracketed or superscripted numbers which refer to the item you are citing in a numerically arranged reference list.  When you refer to the same source again within your text you use the same number.
  • Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.
  • Where possible try to ascertain the author/organisation responsible for the website content
  • For multiple authors give details of all the authors following the advice in the Author Rules tab, giving the Surname and up to two initials.  Each author is separated with a comma.
  • Give the title of the specific page you are referring to, not the homepage, followed by "[Internet]."
  • Try to ascertain the place and publisher of the webpage - if you can't, miss it out.
  • The date of the webpage is given in the format YYYY MMM DD; if you can't find the date miss it out, but remember you should only include information which you can be sure is still current.  If an updated date is given include this in square brackets, and also add the date cited using the same date format.
  • Where you are referencing a webpage  include "Accessed from : URL" at the end of the reference.
  • URLs should not be hyperlinked.

 

The NML style guide gives detailed information on how to reference many different types of sources using the Vancouver style.

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