Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include, and types of books

Book references include: E-book references include:

Knapsack book by Joanna Bourne is licensed by CC BY 2.0

Author(s) / Editor(s). Author(s) / Editor(s).
Title. Title [Internet].
Edition. Edition.
Place of Publication: Place of Publication:
Publisher; Publisher;
Date of Publication. Date of Publication.

Pagination.

Pagination.

 

Available from: URL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The Basic Reference format is:

Surname A. Title of the book. Edition. Place: Publisher; Year. Pagination.

In-text reference

Use either a bracketed number or superscripted number which refers to an entry in the Reference List.  If you refer to the same source again, use the same bracketed or superscripted number.

Reference list entry:

3. Susskind L, Hrabovsky G. The theoretical minimum: what you need to know to start doing physics. London: Allen Lane; 2013. 256p.

Where an ebook is identical to the print book you reference in the same way as you would a print book, but include the details of the fact that you have accessed it online, and include details of the URL for the ebook.

In-text citation:

Use either a bracketed number or superscripted number which refers to an entry in the Reference List.  If you refer to the same source again, use the same bracketed or superscripted number.

Reference List entry

4. Bonitz M, Lopez J, Becker K, Thomsen H, editors. Complex plasmas: scientific challenges and technological opportunities [Internet]. New York: Springer; 2014. 491 p. Available from:  http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-05437-7

  • In-text citations are bracketed or superscripted numbers which refer to the item you are citing in a numerically arranged reference list.  When you refer to the same source again within your text you use the same number.
  • Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.
  • For multiple authors / editors give details of all the authors/editors the advice in the Author Rules tab, giving the Surname and up to two intials.  Each author is separated with a comma.
  • Full title is given, including any subtitles.
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • The publisher is followed with a ";"
  • The year follows the publisher, and is followed by a full stop "."
  • The number of pages in the book is give as "xxx p."
  • Where you are referencing an ebook, include "[Internet]" after the title
  • Where you are referencing an ebook include "Accessed from : URL" at the end of the reference.
  • URLs should not be hyperlinked.
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