Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include and the format of a book reference

Book referencing should include the following fields:

  • Author(s) or Editor(s) of the work -  see the author rules tab for details on how to manage multiple authors, etc.
  • Year of publication.
  • Title.
  • Place of Publication:
  • Publisher.

You may also include the following if required:

  • Details of translators (given after the title in parenthesis with the abbreviation "trans." preceeding the translators name.  Translators names are given as Initial(s). Surname.
  • Original publication date - where the version you have used is reprint/republication of an edition - where this is the case the date publication for the edition you are using appears, with the original date following in square brackets.

Punctuation: 

(NB: the fields below in red are optional fields)

  • For multiple authors separate the second and subsequent authors with a comma, with the exception of the penulitmate and final authors who are separated by an ampersand (&).
  • In the case of edited books the term "ed" or "eds" appears after the names in parenthesis.
  • Year is followed by a full-stop/period
  • Where you need to add an original publication date, add it after the publication date of the source you used, in square brackets before the full-stop/period.
  • Title is always italicised and followed by a full-stop/period.
  • If the work has a translator add "trans. Initial(s). Surname" in parenthesis after the title, and before the full-stop/period.
  • Place is followed with a colon;
  • Publisher is followed by a full-stop/period.

Where a referenceis longer than a single line, the second and subsequent lines should use a hanging indentation.

In-text citation:

(Richmond, et al. 2016: 415)

Reference list entry:

RICHMOND, O.P., S. POGADDA & J. RAMOVIĆ (eds) 2016. The Palgrave handbook of disciplinary and regional approaches to peace. New York: Plagrave MacMillan.

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