Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing a chapter:

Book chapter references include: Ebook references include:

Interpreration of Landscapes by Ryan Griffis is licensed by CC BY - SA 2.0

Author(s) of chapter Author(s) of the chapter
Year of publication Year of Publication
'Title of chapter' 'Title of chapter'
Author / Editor(s) of book Author / Editor(s) of book
Title of book (italicised) Title of book (italicised)
Place of Publication: Publisher Place of Publication: Publisher
Pages Pages
  URL
  Date accessed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.  

For ebooks the URL and Date accessed are only required where the format of the ebook is different from the print book.  Where the ebook is identical to the print book, it should be treated as a print book.

The Basic In-text citation format is:

(Chapter Author Surname, Date)

The Basic Reference format is:

Chapter Author, A.A. (Year) 'Chapter title'. In Editor, B.B. (ed.), Title of book. Place: Publisher, pp x-xv.

In-text citation:

(Shaughnessy, 2015)

Reference list entry:

Shaughnessy, N. (2015)  'Dancing with difference: moving towards a new aesthetics', in White, G. (ed.), Applied theatre: aesthetics. London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, pp. 87-122.

 

Where an ebook is identical to the print book you reference in the same way as you would be print book:  

In-text citation:

(Edelstein, 2015)

Reference list entry:

Edelstein, W. (2015) 'Education for democracy: co-operation, participation and civic engagement in the classroom', in Psaltis, C., Gillespie, A. and Perret-Clermont, A-N. (eds) Social relations in human and societal development. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 19-31.

 - Where an ebook has been downloaded to a device where pagination is not given (e.g. on a kindle device or e-reader) in place of the publisher information you should give the URL for the service you downloaded it from and the date you downloaded or accessed the book. 

In-text citation:

(Edelstein, 2015)

Reference list entry:

Edelstein, W. (2015) 'Education for democracy: co-operation, participation and civil engagement in the classroom', in Psaltis, C., Gillespie, A. and Perret-Clermont, A-N. (eds) Social relations in human and societal development. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 22 June 2016).

Ensure you include all the punctuation required in your reference.

  • In-text citations are within parenthesis, and contain the author(s) surname(s) and year of publication, page number is given if you are referring to a specific page/section;  if you refer to the authors within your text only the date is needed in your in-text citation, if you refer to the year in your text, only the author(s) is required in your in-text citation.
  • For multiple authors or editors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, paying attention to the use of commas, the word "and" is used rather than "&"
  • (Date) is always within parenthesis.
  • Chapter references include the details of the chapter, and the details of the book the chapter appears in.
  • Chapter titles are given within single quotations and are not italicised
  • The word "in" appears before the names of the book Author or Editor 
  • Editor names are give as Surname, initial(s) followed by (ed.) in parenthesis after the Editors name
  • Title of the publication is always italicised
  • Location is always followed with a ":" followed by the publisher
  • Chapter page numbers are given as pp. xv-xx.
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