Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

About Harvard Referencing

The Harvard style of referencing, is a system of in-text citations and a reference list. Please note that there are many variations of the Harvard reference style, this guide used Harvard as described in the book Cite Them Right which can be found in the Library.  Check your School handbook, or with your School office if you are unsure of any variation you are required to use.

In-text citations:

  • (Author Surname, Year of Publications) when referring to a whole work   OR
  • (Author Surname, Year of Publication, page number) when quoting or referring to a specific page or page range.

Where the Author's name is mentioned within your text, there's no need to include this within the in-text citation.

Examples:

Developmental psychology can be defined as the study of psychological changes in humans over their lifetime (Boslaugh, 2011, p.1).

or

Boslaugh (2011) defines developmental psychology as "the study of psychological changes that occur in human beings over the course of their lives" (p.1).

Reference List:

  • Comes at the end of your document (on a new page);
  • Lists all the sources you have cited;
  • Is alphabetically arranged by surname of the first author/editor;
  • Contains full details of the sources you have cited - these vary depending on the type of publication, see the dropdown menu in the Harvard tab to view examples.

Reference list entry:
Surname, Initial. (Year) Title. Place: Publisher.

Ordering the Reference List:

In the Harvard Style the  Reference List is organised alphabetically by the surnames of the authors.

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