Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

What you need to include, and types of books

Book references include: E-book references include:

Knapsack book by Joanna Bourne is licensed by CC BY 2.0

Author(s) / Editor(s) Author(s) / Editor(s)
Year Year
Title Title
Editor / Translator Editor / Translator
Edition Statement Edition Statement
Volume Volume
Place Place
Publisher Publisher
DOI or URL

Fields marked in grey are only included where the source contains that information.

The in-text citation format is:

(Surname Year, Page)

The reference list entry format is:

Surname, First Name. Year. Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher.

In-text citation:

(Esgate, Groome, and Baker 2005, 42)

Reference list entry:

Esgate, Anthony, David Groome, and Kevin Baker. 2005. An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Hove: Psychology Press.

In-text citation:

(Psaltis, Gillespie, and Perret-Clermont 2015, 125)

Reference list entry:

Psaltis, Charis, Alex Gillespie, and Anne-Nelly Perret-Clermont, eds. 2015. Social relations in human and societal development. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. doi: 10.1057/9781137400994

In-text citation

  • Includes Author surname(s) - for multiple authors follow the advice on the Author Rules tab
  • Includes the year of publication
  • Includes a page number when referring to a specific page or section.

Reference list:

  • The first author / editor name is given as Surname, First Name
  • Second and subsequent author / editor names are given in the format of First Name Surname
  • For multiple authors follow the advice in the Author Rules tab, and pay attention to the use of commas, and the word "and" (not an ampersand "&")
  • Year follows the author(s)/editor(s)
  • Each section of a reference is finished with a "."
  • Title is always italicised, and given in full
  • Location is always followed with a ":"
  • For e-books provide details of the doi or URL where no doi is given.
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