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Referencing Styles

A guide to the reference styles used at the University of St Andrews

Referencing Styles used in the University

There are many different referencing styles available.  This guide includes information about the styles used within the University.  Use the list below to to find the style recommended by your School, then select the tab for the style you need.

  

Centre for Academic, Professional and Organisational Development (CAPOD) provides support for students who need help with referencing.  You can book a Study Skills appointment, or attend a drop-in at the Library during semester if you need help.

Schools and Styles

School Style
Art History See School of Art History Undergraduate Handbook for recommended style
Biology Harvard
Chemistry Chemistry project reports should use Royal Society of Chemistry Format 
Classics Any clear and consistent style such as Harvard or Chicago. Page numbers should be included in citations. Ancient texts should be referenced by book, chapter/section and line number as appropriate, rather than by the page number in the modern edition or translation.​
Computer Science See School of Computer Science Student Handbook
Divinity Chicago (Notes and Bibliography)
Earth and Environmental Science Harvard (recommended)
Economics and Finance See School of Economics and Finance Student Handbook
English Please check with School of English teaching staff
Film Studies Chicago (Notes and Bibliography)
Geography and Sustainable Development Harvard
History See School Handbook
International Relations See School Handbook
Modern Languages MHRA - Footnote version
Management Harvard
Mathematics and Statistics Harvard or Chicago (Author Date) or Vancouver
Medicine Amended versions of Harvard or Vancouver
Music Various styles can be used - see Music in words for guidance
Philosophy MHRA (recommended), MLA, Chicago, or Harvard
Physics and Astronomy

Physics - Vancouver

Astrophysics - Harvard

ID4001 - APA as defined by Taylor & Francis journals

Psychology APA (American Psychological Association)
Social Anthropology Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute